How to identify a thesis subject
As a thesis supervisor in the Master of Management track of the Rotterdam School of Management, I have had several conversations with students looking for a thesis subject in the past couple of weeks. By that time, most students were still unclear about a potential thesis subject and they use the conversation to get one. To help them, I’ll share a few things that I learned about the choice of a thesis subject.
Tip 1 It is a step up from your earlier Thesis
The students I have met typically already have a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree in one of a wide range of topics: a law degree from Russia, an IT degree from India, a veterinary physician from Portugal and so on. Some of them see their Master of Management thesis as a repetition of their earlier thesis. I disagree; instead I encourage them to step up their game.
For example, I supervised a student with a grade in IT from India, who wanted to study retail loyalty programs. Same as for his Bachelor’s thesis, he wanted to develop an advanced loyalty program, only this time for a mall instead of an individual store or retail chain. We agreed it would be too limited. Worthy of a Master of Management degree, he broadened the scope. He first studied the international variety of malls, shopping cultures in various markets and the role of malls in it and the roles of types of stores in a mall to draw a stakeholder map. Then he selected a type of mall in a single market and he studied how various aspects of loyalty program design would drive customer loyalty in this mall and its stores. From that he drew up a list of requirements for a loyalty program. He was now ready to develop the program, but in his thesis project he did not touch software code.
Tip 2 Follow the T-shaped model of expanding your horizon
The student followed what I would call a T-shaped model.
Many degrees that my students have completed, involve specialization turning them into a qualified professional. The Master of Management track, however, involves developing a broader understanding of the context in which the person may operate after graduation and becoming manager or leader in this field. If the foundational degree is the stem of the T, the Master of Management degree is the arm. It encourages looking beyond the borders of the specialty. For that, the student needs to develop a 30,000 feet perspective on the context in which one will operate. The thesis is the perfect place to do so.
Tip 3 Ladder up to the big trend and then come down
The idea is to understand the context in which one will operate and find a thesis subject within that. By the time I get to talk with them, many have already read a lot of literature, typically instructed to do so as part of their academic formation. However, they are surprised that reading a lot does not help them to get to a thesis subject. If anything, it is confusing because there is so much one can work on. How to choose?
Many ways lead to Rome, but here is one that I have seen work. Imagine that you’re a trained medical professional and you want to keep working in this field but then from a Master of Management point of view. I recommend them to do the following: (1) identify the big trend (in society or science), then (2) define a smaller trend in your field that results from the big trend or influences it, (3) identify the opportunity in it, and then (4) define a specific target that you want to meet (see also tip 4).
For example, the big trend can be the global pandemic of obesity. People are getting increasingly more often obese; what’s worse, children too and it is causing health problems at increasing healthcare costs. Students see this and want to do something about it. That’s great and noble but we need to be more specific not to boil the ocean. We move on to a smaller trend. There are many things that you can do, or there are many experts that you can consult what to do about obesity, which is an interesting study by itself. For example, one can try to encourage consumers to reduce sugar consumption (by nudging them to consume less soft drinks), exercise more, fight snacking, or promote different means of transportation (e.g., biking instead of driving). A study into this smaller trend may help us understand what stops the consumer from displaying the healthier behavior. The results of this study may help us to do (3): identify the opportunity. The thesis subject can then be to seize the opportunity and drive the change.
Tip 4 Be SMART
Which brings me to the fourth tip, which is to define a specific target that you want to meet (see also tip 3). For example, two students noticed that fellow students often gain weight when they start college because of bad nutritional habits; no longer at home; drinking a lot and consuming unhealthy food. In Rotterdam, they have lunch on campus and the food courts are populated with unhealthy options. The student studied how they can nudge the students into healthier food options, taking the layout of the food court and the food stalls into account. For example, they experimented with the menus and the accessibility of public spaces to consume the food.
Ideally, the definition of the thesis subject is SMART: specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and timely. The window of writing a Master thesis is typically six months, much of which is often lost looking for a topic. My advice is not to boil the ocean. It is not enough to say that one wants to do something with “sustainability”, “disruption”, “fighting obesity” etc. Noble, but to make it in six months, it better be specific.
Tip 5 Diverge and converge
Students are concerned that by being specific, their topic is irrelevant and they will not have an impact. However, those involved in innovation know there is a way to minimize these risks, which by properly diverging first and then converging to the subject of choice.
For example, imagine that the student wants to help fight obesity. The divergent stage may then comprise identifying the populations that get obese (e.g., the elderly, students or kids) and in the convergent stage one can choose a population (e.g., students) based on an assessment of impact and reachability. Then, the student can study opportunities to fight student obesity, e.g., fight excessive drinking behavior or change nutritional habits at breakfast, lunch, dinner or munching down kebab after a night out. My students identified lunch breaks, not only because of its potential impact but also based on their access to campus restaurants.
My advice is to explore, talk and read a lot in the divergent stage, along with doing brainstorms and running workshops, and then be decisive in the convergent stage and set SMART objectives.
Tip 6 Position yourself in the middle
It is academically perfectly legitimate to do a study identifying the 10 factors that drive student obesity and follow an academically sound procedure for a study. However, I invite my students to be more entrepreneurial than this by positioning themselves as a change agent and start experimenting with a solution, based on their insight into the drivers.
For example, I had a student who studied the opportunity to build resorts on the moon. One of the constraints he discovered was the payload of a rocket; the cost per kilo of bringing people and materials to the moon and back. Given the right study design, it would have been perfectly legitimate to stop here, along with the identification of other constraints. However, he started to study opportunities to bring down the cost of the payload and explore them with experts. It was an example of not being satisfied with just the description.
I believe that it comes with the territory of a Master of Management and future leader to be experimental and entrepreneurial instead of just descriptive. I also believe that it results into more exciting studies and thesis subjects, potentially even worth publishing in peer-reviewed journals.
Besides, I believe that taking the entrepreneurial stance also better prepares the student for their post-graduate future: few of the graduates will enjoy a career in science; many more will the practitioners with an academic (curious, experimental and provocative) mindset, just like me.
Tip 7 Make it academically relevant
Yet don’t get me wrong; I don’t promote students to abandon the academic part or mindset and just go for an entrepreneurial project. On the contrary; I want to maintain the academic rigor and its deep roots in theory; I just encourage the students to be a little more visionary, experimental and playful.
For example, a while ago I had a student with a Bachelor’s degree in Law from Russia. He was founding a startup in his home country and he asked if he could write his thesis about this startup. I get these requests more often; startups are hot. I said he could not, but what we could and did do is give an academic fundament to the startup initiative and use that as a thesis subject.
The startup idea was a website that produced custom-made contracts from templates targeted at small and medium enterprises. The student had seen the initiative in the US where it was successful. The idea itself did not qualify for a Master thesis. However, when discussing the idea, it became clear that it would provide the enterprises access to the Russian legal system, which is to date very inaccessible leaving the enterprises at risk. Similar situations exist in other countries, e.g., India, and there are academics and departments studying access to legal systems. This reference to an existing field of research justified the thesis subject and it gave the student’s startup extra insight into the conditions for his future success.
Tip 8 Put it in context
The example under tip 7 is illustrative of the wider scope that a Master of Management thesis may have than the Bachelor’s Thesis. The thesis subjects have the tendency to look at the wider economic, political and technical context in which the future Master will operate. A medical professional will no longer only look at the medical or clinical aspects of a new drug for animals; she will also look at the societal implications of launching the new drug; the dominant technology of producing and administering the new drug, or the funding of drug research and manufacturing, making a distinction between on-label and off-label marketing.
It also means that students must deploy a wide array of research methods, ranging from stakeholder analysis and qualitative expert interviews to surveys among difficult to identify experts and specialists. Being resourceful in getting things done, is one of the qualifications of the future Master.
Tip 9 No need to do it all by yourself
Being resourceful also comes down to acknowledging that the student does not need to do everything by himself. Part of the exercise is to identify and tap into the right experts; another part of the exercise can be to promote teamwork; I believe that both exercises are worthy of a future Master of Management.
For example, the student who studied the opportunity of building a resort on the moon already had a degree in Aerospace Engineering so he was qualified to take on the subject. However, the subject turned out to be very complex, covering a wide range of technical, economic and health-related topics. So instead of trying to cover it all by himself, the student built a collaboration platform using Slack (www.slack.com) to have experts interact and arrive at a shared view on the possibility of building a resort on the moon.
Tip 10 Follow your heart
I have come across several students who were looking to combine an internship and writing the master thesis, even though it is not required or encouraged by the program. One reason is because they think it will give them a better entry point into the job market. Others consider working in the research program of a faculty member or PhD student.
While it is perfectly legitimate, I encourage the students to follow their hearts and choose a thesis subject they really like. It may sound overly dramatic, but it may be the last time in their career that they do something they really like and that is not defined by someone else. Once you’re graduated, you’ll find a job at a company and the boss will define your agenda. Equally, don’t let the happenstance availability of an internship define what you do. You’ll be investing six months of your life; it better be good.
The purpose of this text is help students identify a thesis subject, first by liberating them to do as they please but also by setting grand expectations. I hope that it this text help them not only to make a choice but also to prepare them for our conversations.
The author wishes to thank Dr. Irma Bogenrieder, Associate Professor Organizational Processes in the Department of Organization & Personnel and Academic Director Master in Management, Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, for the opportunity to supervise these talented students.
Consulted work and references
Gowtham Prassath Balakrishnan (2016): Coalition Loyalty Programs; an analysis on the design of a coalition loyalty program based on the shopping centre typology. Thesis for the MScBA Master in Management 2015-2016. Student number 438448
Roman Buzko (2015): Online legal services to enhance access to justice. Thesis for the MScBA Master in Management 2014-2015. Student number 418214
Raduz Mollee (2016): The Moon; turning a dream destination into reality. Thesis for the MScBA Master in Management 2015-2016. Student number 419782